of TSHOOT and a friend This routine can be hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, per quarter, or per. CCNP CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 Official. How to Master CCNP TSHOOT. balsodoctforri.ga – René Molenaar. Page 3 of Introduction. One of the things I do in life is work as a Cisco Certified System . This book is designed to provide information about the Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco. IP Networks (TSHOOT) exam for the CCNP Routing.
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CCNP exam, its requirements, and available resources. CCNP Routing and Switching TSHOOT Official Cert Guide. • CCNP TSHOOT Lab Manual. Exam Description: Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks v2 minute qualifying exam with 15‒25 questions for the Cisco CCNP certification. use by instructors in the CCNP TSHOOT course as part of an official Cisco Note: This lab uses Cisco routers with Cisco IOS Release (24)T and the.
The TSHOOT exam is typically your final journey in pursuit of the CCNP Routing and Switching certification, and the knowledge contained within is vitally important to con- sider yourself a truly skilled routing and switching expert or specialist. This book would do you a disservice if it did not attempt to help you learn the material.
To that end, the book can help you pass the TSHOOT exam by using the following methods: Covering the exam topics and helping you discover which exam topics you have not mastered Providing explanations and information to fill in your knowledge gaps Supplying multiple troubleshooting case studies with diagrams and diagnostic out- put that enhance your ability to resolve trouble tickets presented in the exam envi- ronment, in addition to real-world troubleshooting issues you might encounter Providing practice exercises on exam topics, presented in each chapter and on the enclosed CD-ROM Who Should Read This Book?
This book is not designed to be a general networking topics book, although it can be used for that purpose. Although other objectives can be achieved from using this book, the book is written with one goal in mind: to help you pass the exam.
If you want to pass the exam, this book is for you. From the Library of Outcast Outcast xxxi The strategy you use to prepare for the TSHOOT exam might differ slightly from strate- gies used by other readers, mainly based on the skills, knowledge, and experience you have already obtained. For example, if you have attended a TSHOOT course, you might take a different approach than someone who learned troubleshooting through on-the- job training.
Regardless of the strategy you use or the background you have, this book is designed to help you gain the knowledge you need about the issues that can arise with different routing and switching technologies and get you to the point where you can apply that knowledge and pass the exam. Cisco Certifications and Exams Cisco offers four levels of routing and switching certification, each with an increasing level of proficiency: Entry, Associate, Professional, and Expert.
For most exams, Cisco does not publish the scores needed for passing. With the help of latest and authentic Cisco CCNP Routing and Switching dumps exam questions, you can find the best exam preparation kit here.
These two log messages will not have a severity level. They are not errors but are just informational messages. The first log message is categorized as a warning message.
These messages regarding interface status are normal output and will always be displayed when you exit config mode. The first log message is an error message with a severity level of 3.
The second message would be shown if the logging console warning command had been issued. Any difference in the configurations indicates that someone failed to update the backup configuration of a device after making a configuration change to that device.
Although few argue with the criticality of maintaining current documentation. A danger with relying on documentation is that if the documentation is dated not main- tained.
To determine what should be happening on the network. Collect information Some information collected might come from other parties for example. Table describes how communication plays a role in each troubleshooting phase.
Communication Each of the troubleshooting steps outlined in the structured approach requires clear com- munication. As shown in Example Clearly communicating with those other parties helps ensure collection of the proper data.
When troubleshooting a performance problem on a router. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 37 Troubleshooting Steps The Role of Communication Examine collected information Because a troubleshooter is often not fully aware of all aspects of a network.
Last week. After clearly defining the problem. This consultation could provide insight leading to the elimination of a potential cause.
This morning. Verify hypothesis Temporary network interruptions often occur when verifying an hypothesis. Because these troubleshooters might be focused on different tasks at different times.
As a side benefit. The process of change management includes using policies that dictate rules regarding how and when a change can be made and how that change is documented. Problem resolution After a problem is resolved.
Change Management Managing when changes can be made and by whose authority helps minimize network downtime. Consider the following scenario. Eliminate potential causes The elimination of potential causes might involve consultation with others. The previous scenario is an excellent example of how following a structured trouble- shooting approach.
Even though the user was unaware of any changes. Chapter Table lists a reference of these key topics and the page num- bers on which each is found.
Cisco Lifecycle Services. Review All Key Topics Review the most important topics in this chapter. This sec- tion focuses on how to use the CLI to collect infor- mation for troubleshooting and maintenance.
This section reviews the ping. This section introduces you to the essential tools for troubleshooting and maintenance tasks. This sec- tion focuses on the steps and commands required to successfully document a network diagram. This chapter introduces you to a sampling of Cisco IOS tools and features designed for network maintenance and troubleshooting.
To be an efficient and effective trouble- shooter. There is no argument that you will be collecting network information when there is an issue.
Operating system and application software along with any applicable licensing for the device 2. Physical topology c. Backup of device configuration information b. Vlog c. Which three of the following are components that would be most useful when recov- ering from a network equipment outage? Blog b. Baseline information collection c. The types of information collection used in troubleshooting fall into which three broad categories?
Wiki d. Network event information collection 3. Podcast 4. Which of the following would be appropriate for a collaborative web-based docu- mentation solution? Troubleshooting information collection b. QoS information collection d. Duplicate hardware d. IPS 6. Which of the following is the ping response to a transmitted ICMP echo datagram that needed to be fragmented when fragmentation was not permitted? Which of the following is a Cisco IOS technology that uses a collector to take data from monitored devices and present graphs.
NetFlow c. Which two of the following are characteristics of the NetFlow feature? Choose the two best answers. Collects detailed information about device statistics c.
Which command enables you to determine whether a routing loop exists? NBAR b. Collects detailed information about traffic flows b. Which command can be used to determine whether transport layer connectivity is functioning?
Uses a pull model d. Chapter 2: Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 43 5. Uses a push model 7. QDM d. What feature available on Cisco Catalyst switches enables you to connect a network monitor to a port on one switch to monitor traffic flowing through a port on a dif- ferent switch?
SPAN c. RSTP b. What IOS command enables you to discover the Cisco devices that are directly con- nected to other Cisco devices? SPRT RSPAN d. If you look closely. Specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools help a troubleshooter implement his fix for an issue.
The collection of information when troubleshooting a problem can often be made more efficient through the use of specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools. As troubleshooters investigate the information they collected during the troubleshooting process.
This information provides a frame of reference against which other data can be compared when we are troubleshooting an issue. Chapter 1. This is the information collected when the network is operating normally. Several of these steps involve the use of tools that will help gather. By proactively monitoring network devices with specialized report- ing tools. This is the information collected while Key troubleshooting an issue that was either reported by a user or a network manage- Topic ment station NMS.
A relation- ship exists between the two. They can then contrast that normal behavior against what they are observing in their collected data. Specialized maintenance tools can be used in a network to collect baseline data on an ongoing basis so that it is available and current when needed. A popu- lar example of a wiki is Wikipedia http: At From the Library of Outcast Outcast. Get free trials and work with them for a while. Because such a tight relationship exists between troubleshooting and network mainte- nance.
Network Documentation Tools It is fitting that we start this chapter with a discussion on network documentation tools. Just because it was reported in the past and already had a resolution does not mean you can skip the documentation process. This section focuses on tools that are necessary for trou- bleshooting and maintenance tasks. Many solutions are available on the market.
The true power of documentation is seen during the troubleshooting process. The big reason is time. To keep the documentation current is a chal- lenge for most people. Shop around and communicate with the vendors to see what they have to offer you and your business needs.
That is the only way you will be able to determine whether the product will work for you. The features you want the tool to provide will determine the overall cost. At some point. A couple of documentation management system examples are as follows: Several software applications are available for recording.
During the troubleshooting process. A wiki can act as a web-based collaborative documentation platform. This is the information collected when our devices automatically generate alerts in response to specific conditions for example. This type of wiki technology can also be used on your local network to maintain a central repository for documentation that is both easy to access and easy to update.
These alerts can be simple notification messages or emergency messages. Chapter 1 discussed the importance of network documentation.
These applications are often referred to as help desk applications.
Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 47 some point. External servers for example. Basic Tools Troubleshooting and network maintenance tools often range in expense from free to tens of thousands of dollars. Regardless of budget. You need to select tools that balance your troubleshooting and maintenance needs while meeting your budgetary constraints. To illustrate. The debug command can provide real-time infor- mation about router or switch processes.
The focus of this book is on those show and debug CLI commands that will assist us in solving trouble tickets. Depending on your network device. Figure provides a sample of the CCP home page. If you intend to routinely copy backups to an FTP server. Destination filename [r1-confg]? Writing r1-confg!
Compare this to the FTP configuration commands and notice the differ- ence. R1 config ip http client username cisco R1 config ip http client password cisco R1 config end From the Library of Outcast Outcast. Notice that the login credentials that is. In a production environment. Example illustrates a router configured to back up the running configuration every minutes to an FTP server with an IP address of You can view the files stored in a configuration archive by issuing the show archive com- mand.
The next archive file will be named ftp: Most Recent 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The output of show archive indicates that the maximum configurations allowed is ten. R1 show archive The maximum archive configurations allowed is If the archive list on the router fills up maximum ten.
Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 51 Example shows the execution of the copy run start command.
The show archive com- mand is then reissued. This is not entirely true. Example Confirming Archive Configuration R1 copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration. Note that this does not delete anything from the FTP server.
Because the path is pointing to an FTP server. Only the entry in show archive is removed to make space in the list. Interfaces that were enabled do not have a no shutdown command in the startup configuration. This merge is easily witnessed with the interfaces. Restoring a configuration backup requires copying the configuration file from its storage Key location to the running configuration on the router or switch.
The Cisco IOS copy com- Topic mand treats this as a merge operation instead of a copy and replace operation. To fix this. This is illustrated in Example We can witness this with the password recovery process on a Cisco router. This means that copying anything into the running configuration from any source might not produce the result we desire..
R1 show start. Most Recent However. Once the startup configuration is copied to merged with the running configuration. You can change the maximum number of archives with the maximum command in config-archive configuration mode. During this process. In this case. Enter Y if you are sure you want to proceed.
Y Loading R1-config-3! R1 On the bright side. For exam- ple. Example Restoring an Archived Configuration Router configure replace ftp: Notice how the IOS warns you that this is a copy replace function that completely overwrites the current configuration.
Example shows the restora- tion of an archived configuration to a router. Unlike the copy command. In most cases. If you are connected to a router through Telnet or SSH and want to see console messages.
By sending log messages to an external server. By default. Logging severity levels range from 0 to 7. You can also specify the severity level by name instead of number. As part of that command. Depending on the syslog server software. If you need to clear the logging messages in the buffer.
Notice that lower severity levels are more severe than those with higher levels. You can view the logging messages in the buffer by issuing the show logging command. After the buffer fills to capacity. A downside of solely relying on console messages is that those messages can scroll off the screen.
Another logging option is to log messages to an external syslog server. Example illustrates several of the logging configurations discussed here.
The console is configured for logging events of the same severity level. Figure shows logging messages being collected by a Kiwi Syslog Server available from http: In Example The router can use a maximum of bytes of RAM for the buffered logging.
This buffer can be viewed with the show logging com- mand.. Stratum 1 time sources are the most reliable and accurate. Example shows an NTP configuration entered on a router located in the eastern Key time zone. NTP will decide based on its protocol which is the most reliable. This implies that devices need to have a common point of reference for their time. In this example. Naval Observatory in Washington. Although you could individually set the clock on each of your devices.
Time-stamp accuracy is paramount when it comes to troubleshooting. Users are complain- ing that the network is slow at 5: The ntp server command is used to point to an NTP server. The problem ticket indicates that this happens every day. Is that really 2: You have just been assigned a trouble ticket.
In such cases. Note that a configuration can have more than one ntp server command. You are browsing the logs to see whether anything abnormal is occurring on the network at that time. The Topic clock summer-time command defines when daylight savings time begins and ends.
You might have heard the saying that a man with one watch always knows what time it is. Reasons to monitor network traffic include the following: If you work for a service provider or are a cus- tomer of a service provider.
You can then take the necessary measures to address them proactively before they become a major issue. In these instances. Advanced Tools Keeping an eye on network traffic patterns and performance metrics can help you antici- pate problems before they occur. Performance issues can be difficult to trouble- shoot in the absence of a baseline. Monitoring resource utilization on your network for example. Because it is based on a hierarchy.
By routinely monitoring network performance. This is in contrast to taking a reactive stance where you continually respond to problem reports as they occur. Several companies market NetFlow collectors. You need advanced tools to proactively monitor the health of your devices and the health of your network traffic.
Stratum 1 is the most reliable. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 57 NTP uses a hierarchy of time servers based on stratum levels from 1 to Figure shows a topology using SNMP.
For the NMS to change the information on the managed device. Table contrasts these two technologies. In the topology. To enhance the security available with SNMPv2c. SNMP is primarily focused on device sta- tistics the health of a device.
These statistics can be used. Before SNMPv3. This consistency is important when data is being collected for baselin- ing purposes. In addi- tion. A flow is a series of packets. NetFlow can keep track of the number of packets and bytes observed in each flow. Only NMSs permitted in access list 10 and 11 will be able to read. Contact and location information for the device is also specified.
You can use the NetFlow feature as a standalone feature on an individual router. Flow information is removed from a flow cache if the flow is terminated. Such a standalone configuration might prove useful for troubleshooting because you can observe flows being created as packets enter a router. After the NetFlow collector has received flow information over a period of time. Figure shows a sample topology in which NetFlow is enabled on router R4. This command ensures that the SNMP interface index stays consistent during data collection.
This information is stored in a flow cache. Because NetFlow does not have a standardized port number. Although not required. You should check the documentation for your NetFlow collector software to confirm which version to configure. The ip flow-export source lo 0 command indicates that all communication between router R4 and the NetFlow collec- tor will be via interface Loopback 0. A NetFlow Version of 5 was specified.
This ensures that all flows passing through the router. Although an external NetFlow collector is valuable for longer-term flow analysis and can provide detailed graphs and charts. A troubleshooter can look at the output displayed in Example and be able to confirm. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 61 R4 config-if exit R4 config ip flow-export source lo 0 R4 config ip flow-export version 5 R4 config ip flow-export destination If you only need to enable specific traps.
These messages. These traps require the NMS to interpret them because they are not in an easy. Although these protocols by themselves lack a mechanism to alert a network administra- tor for example.
The Key snmp-server host You can view the enabled traps by using the show run include traps command. If an interface goes down. The redundant link can then be repaired. Both syslog and SNMP are protocols that can report the occurrence of specific events on a network device. The snmp-server enable traps command is used to enable all traps on the router..
The event command specifies what you are looking for in your custom-defined event. From this short list. The message reminds the administrator to update the network documentation and lists the rationale for clearing the interface counters. Notice that entering the clear counters command triggers the custom-defined event. In response to a defined event. EEM can perform various actions. The action command is then entered to indicate what should be done in response to the defined event.
To illustrate the basic configuration steps involved in configuring an EEM applet. The specific action to be taken is producing this informational message saying: Please update network documentation to record why the counters were reset. SNMP trap. Note that the clear counters command would be detected even if a shortcut for example. Although this is a rather large collection of predefined messages and should accommodate most network management requirements. An event can be defined and triggered based on a sys- log message.
To verify the operation of the EEM configuration presented in Example The skip no param- eter says that the CLI command will not be skipped that is.
Example Basic ping Command R1 ping This section discusses how ping. Three easy-to-use tools built in to the Cisco IOS can help you verify connectivity and further define the problem.
Some relatively simple tasks can confirm the issue reported and in most cases help to focus your troubleshooting efforts. R4 Cisco Support Tools Cisco has several other configuration. They are ping. If it is unsuccessful. Sending 5. The ping command does have several options that can prove useful during troubleshoot- ing.
Ping A common command.
If you recall from Chapter 1. The same holds true in reverse with an unsuccessful ping. For every ICMP echo reply received from that specified desti- nation.
The router did not wait before considering the ping to have failed and sending another ICMP echo message For example!
These failures occurred because of the 0-second timeout Perhaps you suspect that an interface has a nondefault maximum transmission unit MTU size You can also use the ping command to create a load on the network to troubleshoot the network under heavy use.. Notice the M in the ping responses For example From the Library of Outcast Outcast.. Notice that all the pings failed To ver- ify your suspicion Traffic flowing across one path is successful Example shows the sending of pings with the do not fragment bit set Sending The df-bit option instructs a router to drop this datagram rather than fragmenting it if fragmentation is required Packet sent with the DF bit set M.
The extended ping feature enables you to granularly customize your pings. Consider Example M The challenge is how to determine the nondefault MTU size without multiple manual attempts. This invokes the extended ping feature. Packet sent with the DF bit set!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Sweep range of sizes [n]: Type escape sequence to abort. Timeout in seconds : Extended commands [n]: Type of service : Set DF bit in IP header? Data pattern [0xABCD]: An extended ping can help with such a scenario.
Target IP address: This command causes router R1 to attempt a TCP connection with Such an approach might prove useful if you are using a divide-and-conquer approach. The telnet command is useful for troubleshooting Layer 4 that is.
Example displays the output of a successful trace to the router that has the IP address Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 67 Telnet As you just read. The response of Open indicates that The second valuable piece of information is the path that the trace took through the network. The result of using Telnet to test the transport layer shows that port 25 is not responding on the mail server as shown in Example The mail server uses SMTP port This is something that the ping command does not provide.
Telnet uses TCP port The first is verified connectivity. If the trace completes successfully. If you see a repeating pattern of IP addresses in the output of traceroute for example. Tracing the route to Because the collection of information can be one of the most time-consuming of the troubleshooting processes. We then use traceroute to get a better picture of where this ping is failing so we can focus our attention around that part of the network.
Time is valuable. I choose the magnet. Would you prefer to search for the needle in a haystack by moving one piece of straw at a time.