Investigating the complex interplay between tectonics and sedimentation is a key endeavor in modern earth science. Many of the world's. PDF | Simultaneous breakthroughs in our understanding of plate-tectonic have resulted in rapidly improving actualistic models for sedimentary basins. Basin. PDF | This chapter reviews a number of key advances in quantitative understanding In book: Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances, pp -
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TECTONICS OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS: Recent Advances / edited by Cathy Busby and Antonio Azor. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN (cloth). Tectonics Of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances DOWNLOAD HERE Investigating the complex interplay between tectonics and sedimentation is a key . Earth's crust, of tectonic origin, in which sediments accumulate. Sedimentary Tectonics is needed to make sedimentary basins, but the record of the basin itself .
Because sedimentary basins arise from deformation of the lithosphere, the cold thermal boundary layer of mantle convection, sedimentary basins are an indicator of the coupled stresses and strains in the crust-mantle system. Deformation of the lithosphere, driven by mantle convection, produces vertical motions on scales ranging from compression of continental margins to broad intracratonic subsidence.
A central goal for multidisciplinary studies of sedimentary basins is to use the sedimentary record of vertical motions as a fundamental constraint for global geodynamic models. Research Perspectives Future research should link models of basin formation over a wide range of scales from the global to local. In this effort, global formulations of tectonic forces, subsuming global observations of stress magnitudes in the lithosphere, must be successively refined to match the observations of regional basin subsidence.
Basins with asterisks are preserved in the sense that their basements are retained, but they are difficult to recognize in the ancient record. Past models have utilized simple approximations of basin geometries, tectonic driving forces, and material properties e. This work has illustrated general principles of basin formation, but its applicability to specific cases has been limited by the range of interacting tectonic mechanisms that are known to be common in many basins Figure 1.
In particular, these models have not resolved the nature of sea-level changes through geologic history. As preserved in the sedimentary record, it is often difficult to determine whether changes in relative sea level arise from vertical motions of the crust epeirogeny or from changes in the volume of water on Earth's surface eustasy.
In cases of epeirogeny, the vertical motions may be driven by several processes. For example, in foreland basins linked to orogenic belts both supra-crustal and subcrustal loads influence basin subsidence Beaumont, , but the relative partitioning in the strength of these processes is difficult to constrain Royden, Similarly, thermal subsidence and in-plane stresses may jointly influence subsidence both along intraplate continental margins and within intracratonic basins Kooi and Cloetingh, To address these complexities, there is a need for new research strategies that combine advanced geodynamic and stratigraphic modeling techniques with geologic observations.
The goal of this effort will be to describe mantle and lithosphere processes, and their stratigraphic response, in a self-consistent manner so that the theory of mantle convection is fused with kinematic models of plate tectonics, basin formation, and basin filling.
Successful backward modeling of well-known basins can be used as a springboard for forward modeling of unstudied basins. For this effort the observed history of plate tectonics could be imposed as velocity boundary conditions in dynamic calculations of mantle convection using a spherical geometry and realistic constitutive relations for geologic materials.
In such models, plate tectonics would evolve with a complete history of vertical motions, sea-level change, and paleogeography e. Basin formation would result from vertical and horizontal forces on the lithosphere and basin filling from resulting patterns of sediment generation and transport see Figure 3. The vertical motion arises from the change in dynamic topography resulting from viscous flow in Earth's mantle.
The geodynamic model was constrained by the history of subduction since the middle Mesozoic.
The model calculations provide a first-order approximation of the relative uplift of North America and the subsidence of Indonesia courtesy of M. Gurnis, California Institute of Technology. Ultimately, these models can be constrained by a wide range of geophysical and geologic observations regarding lateral and radial seismic structure, topography, heat flow, gravity, magnetic anomalies, borehole stress measurements, geodetic strain measurements, and stratigraphic sequences. Successful models ought to differentiate eustatic sea-level changes from the epeirogenic effects of vertical crustal motions.
Summary Overview Tectonic appraisal of basin initiation and evolution in time and space has the intellectual scope to point always in two directions. On the one hand, knowledge of tectonic settings and global geodynamics improves interpretations of the origin and history of basin fill and the resources it contains. On the other hand, the detailed record of lithospheric subsidence and deformation represented by the stratigraphic sequences of sedimentary basins provides an incomparable template to constrain geodynamic theory.
Basin research is thus a primary tool for reconstructing the history of the lithosphere as a whole.
Historical Record of the Climate and Oceans in Sedimentary Basins As sedimentary basins subside, they preserve a geochemical, mineralogical, sedimentary, and paleontological record of evolving depositional environments. Given the ephemeral nature of the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, proxy sedimentary data provide the only information regarding past climatic and oceanographic conditions on Earth's surface, as well as the rate and magnitude of natural fluctuations.
These data are important because investigation of the present climate system yield only a limited understanding based on a mere snapshot of Earth history. In contrast, geologic studies document past global climate changes that are complex and that have occurred over long periods of time compared to the span to date of human history. The sedimentary record of climatic change is critical because of the possibility that human industrial development is altering the global climate system.
Climatic changes in past geologic epochs, as inferred from the sedimentary record, provide important insight and understanding for developing, calibrating, and testing numerical climate models that strive to predict future climate change. Because climate changes result from dynamic interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere, collaborations between sedimentologists, geochemists, marine geologists, paleontologists, planetary scientists, and physical oceanographers will be necessary to develop, test, and calibrate reliable models using the sedimentary record e.
Paleogeography and Paleoclimate Over the past 10 to 15 years there have been numerous compilations of lithologic and geochemical data of climatic significance e. More powerful computer systems, robust and varied data bases, sophisticated mapping and visualization software, and detailed paleogeographic reconstructions can lead to more accurate paleoclimatic maps and interpretations. Although important products in their own right, these maps are the basis for other investigations in the areas of climate modeling and global geochemical cycles.
Paleogeographic and paleoclimate modeling investigations will be important for two reasons. First, there is a need to test and validate paleoclimate models using the climate record stored in sediments Moore et al. Second, because the geologic record has both temporal and geographic limitations in terms of coverage, more accurate climate models could provide paleoclimate interpretations where sedimentological data are limited i. Integrated interpretations and maps of past climatic conditions on Earth's surface could be used for many applications, including stratigraphic modeling, petroleum source-rock prediction, and geochemical-cycle studies.
The geochemical record of sediments and organic matter, when integrated with precise chronostratigraphic constraints, defines secular changes in global ocean and atmospheric chemistry. An exciting new line of research in this area is focusing on the climate record that may be embedded in the cyclicity of the stratigraphic record e. For example, quasi-periodic variations in Earth's orbit about the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis have been calculated as a time series for the past 10 m.
Berger and Loutre, , and the main periods have been estimated back to the beginning of the Paleozoic Berger et al. The goal for future work is to refine the tests for correlations between cyclicity in the geologic record and climatic variations and to utilize this information to further the understanding of climate change and sedimentation through geologic time e.
Paleo-oceanography and Biogeochemistry For paleo-oceanographic and climatic studies the most direct record of ancient ocean composition is found in the bedded evaporite minerals chiefly halite and gypsum associated with many sedimentary basins. For older geologic periods a chemical record of the past is only available from sedimentary basins where salts can be directly sampled.
There is increasing interest in using this record of evaporated seawater to determine potential variations in seawater elemental and isotopic compositions.
Evaporite samples could yield direct information via elemental analysis of individual fluid inclusions in halite and through elemental and isotopic analyses of halite and gypsum crystal growth layers. This record could be compared with the records stored in coeval carbonates to derive integrated signals of ocean chemistry through time.
Studies of the fundamental couplings among tectonic processes, sedimentary cycling, and atmosphere and ocean composition can be developed with global-scale biogeochemical modeling Berner et al. The ground truth for integrated models is improving because of developments in trace-elemental and isotopic microanalytic tools that permit characterization of minerals, organic phases, and fluids at extremely fine scales.
Continued acquisition of detailed data sets should allow the development of biogeochemical models that can be used to better understand the processes that modulate Earth's climate and biosphere.
To this end, there is also great interest in using chronostratigraphic techniques to link the geologic record of the near past to modern processes. For example, coastal sediments deposited during the past few thousand years in bays, estuaries, and marine shelves contain a unique physical and chemical record of the interactions between terrestrial and marine ecosystems in response to tectonic activity, climatic fluctuations, ocean histories, and human impacts such as deforestation, hydrologic modification, and pollution.
They also record, in part, the fluxes and sinks of terrestrial weathering products, biomass changes in coastal regions, and ocean-atmosphere-lithosphere interactions through time. Such information is necessary for establishing quantitative estimates of biogeochemical cycles as well as for assessing the impact of civilization on coastal environments over human history.
Summary Overview The sedimentary record preserved in basins is a principal proxy indicator of paleoclimate and paleo-oceanography and the key basis for reconstructions of paleogeography. In this realm of paleoenvironmental concerns, as for basin tectonics, basin research points always in two directions.
Even as the sedimentary record establishes the nature of past global and regional environments with implications for hydrocarbon and other resources, it also builds valuable insight for predicting future environmental conditions.
The old rubric that the present is the key to the past is no stronger than the parallel rubric that the past is the key to the future.
Fluid Migration and Chemical Mass Transfer in Sedimentary Basins Fluid flow that is ubiquitous within the crust and sedimentary basins has left fingerprints as chemical patterns of diagenesis, ore formation, and petroleum migration.
Significant advances have been made in quantifying the nature of ground-water and petroleum migration in basins over geologic time scales and relating these flows to varied geochemical processes and tectonic forces Garven, Applications to noninvasive mining by subsurface leaching will also be strengthened National Research Council, a. Economically important fluid flow in sedimentary basins includes ground-water flow, hydrocarbon generation and migration, mass transfer between crustal reservoirs, development of geothermal reservoirs, and formation of hydrothermal ore deposits.
Detailed understanding of ground-water flows and chemistry is critical for protecting the quality of drinking water supplies from waste products that may be stored in sedimentary basins.
Circulation of subsurface fluids in sedimentary basins plays a central role in geochemical diagenesis and in forming the framework of sedimentary rock as it is compacted, cemented, modified, and lithified. Flow Patterns Recent work is yielding clearer ideas about characteristics of fluid flow in sedimentary basins. Field-based measurements of physical and chemical parameters such as pore pressures and fluid compositions are now being integrated with numerical simulations of flow systems.
This combined approach is being applied to foreland basins, intracratonic basins, passive margins, and accretionary wedges, quantifying the crucial role of subsurface fluids in a wide range of geologic settings see Figure 4.
Fluids migrate in sedimentary basins as a result of externally and internally generated forces. Most flow is driven by hydraulic gradients created by topographic relief in subaerial continental basins, by subsidence and compression in submarine basins, and by tectonic processes in varied types of basins.
Flexural relaxation of the lithosphere creates regionally extensive gravity-driven flow systems. Fluid density gradients caused by temperature or salinity also drive fluid flow in both continental and marine basins, but they appear to be of only local significance. Arrows depict general flow directions. A Gravity- or topography-driven flow in a foreland basin.
B Thermally driven free convection in an intracratonic sag or rift basin.
C Tectonically driven flow in a fold and thrust belt. D Overpressuring during compaction of a continental margin. E Seismic pumping of deep fluids in a rift. F Compartmentalization of a basin with no deep regional flow. The transport process itself modifies the physical characteristics of the rock matrix through which flow occurs; the porosity and permeability are changed as minerals dissolve and precipitate during diagenesis and hydrothermal vein deposition.
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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. Recent Advances Editor s: Cathy Busby Antonio Azor.
First published: Print ISBN: About this book Investigating the complex interplay between tectonics and sedimentation is a key endeavor in modern earth science.
Many of the world's leading researchers in this field have been brought together in this volume to provide concise overviews of the current state of the subject. She mainly works on upper crustal rocks, combining stratigraphy, structural geology, geochronology, geochemistry and paleomagnetics to solve tectonic problems. Her papers also include process-oriented studies in submarine and subaaerial volcanism, clastic depositional systems, and economic geology.
Her research support has come from geothermal and gold exploration industries, as well as the petroleum industry, the U. Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions.
Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Convergent Margins: